Mango is widely grown in the tropics for its succulent fruit. The fruit is kidney-shaped or oval, from 5 to 15cm in length greenish, yellowish or reddish in colour. Mango tree belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and classified as Mangifera indica. The fruits are nutritious, high in calcium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C.
- Uses of Mango
- Mango chips
- Mango powder
- Mango Juice
- Mango pulp
- Fruit sauce
- Mango slices,
- Mango wine Glazings,
- Flavoured yoghurt,
- Ice cream
- Production of tasty pickles, curries and other food condiments
- Soil and Climatic Conditions Required for Mango Production
Mango tree is adapted to many soil types, provided they are adequately drained and mildly acid (pH 6-7). It grows best in seasonally wet/dry climatic zones of the lowland tropics or frost-free subtropical areas. A dry and or cool season causes uniform floral initiation and tends to synchronize bloom and harvest. The tree does not attain a truly dormant state but ceases growth at temperatures below 12.8 – 15.5°C. Temperature below 15.5°C or above 37.8°C at flowering can cause flower abortion, loss of pollen viability and occasional seedless fruit development. Leaves and fruits are injured by mild frost (-2.2°C – 0.0°C) but the wood is not killed unless temperatures drop to below -6.7°C. The trees have high water requirements during fruit maturation, but tolerate “winter” drought. High winds can knock fruits off trees or cause scaring, since the fruits hang on long, pendulous floral branches at the periphery of the canopy.
- Planting Materials: There are three types of planting materials namely:
Many mango trees are the result of seedlings, which have grown from discarded seeds. The seeds must be from ripe fruits. The seedlings are transplanted two or three weeks after germination.
- Patch Budding:
Patch budding is the most commonly used method in bud grafting of mangoes. Patch budding consists of completely removing a rectangular patch of bark from the stock and replacing it with a catch or bark of the same size containing a bud of the desired variety to be propagated.
- Top Working:
It is a method of converting an old mango tree into improved variety/varieties. The tree is cut at the desired height and concentrated solution of Potassium permanganate smeared with vaseline is applied and the cut end covered with mud and plastic bag. Within a few days, new shoots will develop near the cut ends.
- Mango Varieties:
In Nigeria mango trees were over the years raised from seeds, which have strong phenotypic and genetic variations, giving rise to different mango varieties in the country. The few Nigerian mango varieties, which are currently known and grown in different parts of Nigeria, include Julie, Peters and Paul.
- Mango Processing (Pulping and Juicing):
- Fruit Selection:
Matured fruits with uniform colour and texture, minimum soluble solids of 13 Brix, pH value of 3.5 to 4.0, devoid of insect infestation and mechanical injury are preferred. The receiving area must be clean, well ventilated, and free of insects, rodents or other animals. It is not advisable to hold the fruits too long before processing to avoid spoilage.
The washing pit should be filled with water containing 15 ppm chlorine in order to reduce microbial load and impurities from the fruit. A second washing with clean water is made to eliminate residual chlorine.
This operation is done to inactivate enzymes, eliminate air inside the fruit tissues, remove off- flavours and aromas, fix fruit colour and soften the tissues for further pulping. Two methods are currently used to effect blanching: Dip in boiling water or direct steam injection. The thermal treatment is applied such that internal fruit temperature reaches 75°C. This usually requires 10 minutes in boiling water or 6 minutes with steam. Fruit is blanched unpeeled.
- Peeling and Cutting:
Pulp is separated from the seed manually with knives made of stainless steel on a working bench. Mango pieces are placed in clean plastic containers and taken to the pulping machine.
Mesocarp pieces are passed through a fine mesh to remove undesirable particles. After pulping, a smooth puree is obtained. Recommended mesh size is 0.5 mm. coarser material is separated in the process and disposed properly. The pulp is transferred in containers to the kettle.
- Thermal Treatment:
A heat treatment is applied in the kettle to prevent chemical and microbial spoilage. In this treatment the pulp reaches 95°C and is held for 10 min. with continuous stirring.
The use of additives is recommended to extend the pulp shelf life. Commonly used additives include 0.39 percent citric acid to decrease pH and prevent microbial growth and enhance effectiveness of preservatives as sodium benzoate (0.5 percent). To prevent discoloration 0.1 percent ascorbic acid is used as antioxidant. Additives are incorporated to the pulp right before the thermal treatment is finished (ca. 5 min before) by dispersing in hot water or pulp and proper stirring. Final product should have 13 °Brix and pH values between 3.4 to 3.5.
The pulp is packed when hot in plastic containers, sealed immediately and flipped over so the internal part of the lid gets in contact with the hot product. All packing materials must be clean before use.
Hot containers are cooled with fresh water at the lowest temperature attainable. After cooling, lid closings should be inspected. Finally, containers are cleaned and labels affixed to be sent to a fresh, clean storage place.
fc for mango pulping and juicing